石器时代的工具

Ancient stone tools and other artefacts allow us to understand how early-human objects were conceived, how people lived and interacted with each other and their surroundings.

Two Million Years Old Stone Age Tool, Rawat,Pakistan
Two Million Years Old Stone Age Tool, Rawat,Pakistan

Image source:https://search.creativecommons.org/photos/be12ce9f-1994-4899-bdee-51789bb6f3c4bycolours of pakistan

Imaginative depiction of the Stone Age, by Viktor Vasnetsov
Image source:https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Stone_Age

Stone Age time coordinates

The Stone Age indicates the large period during which stone was widely used to make utensils. So far, the first stone tools have been dated around2,6 million years ago.The end is set at the first use of bronze around 3,300 BCE. Stone was not the only material used for tool making, yet it was the most durable one when it came to decaying and thus survived better than the others.

File:Poignard 0.188.1 2 fond.jpg
Upper Neolithic flint dagger, circa 1800 BC

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Some Stone Age Facts

Early in the Stone Age, humans lived in tiny,roaming groups. During this period, the Earth was in the middle of anIce Age.
Stone Age humans huntedlarge mammals, such as mammoths, giant bison and deers. They usedstone toolstocut,weight and crush, earning better skills at extracting meat and other nutrients from animals and plants than their ancestors.
Around 14,000 years ago, Earth entered a warmer time and many of the large Ice Age animals were extinct. In theFertile Crescent, a boomerang-shaped region surrounded on the west by the Mediterranean Sea and the east by the Persian Gulf, wild corn and cereal became abundant as it got warmer. Humans started to build houses. They changed the nomadic lifestyle for farming.

Stone age axes and bracelet
Stone age axes and bracelet

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Pre-historic boars and deer
Rock painting atBhimbetka, India- Pre-historic boars and deer

Image source:https://search.creativecommons.org/photos/4aa0f57a-08d3-4180-a912-24dce649b76abyNagarjun

Early Stone Age Tools

The first production of stone tools dates back to about2.6 million years ago. The oldest stone utensils, called theOldowan toolkit, consist of:
Hammerstonesthat show signs of beatings on their surfaces
Stone coresthat show flake marks along the edges
Sharp stone flakesthat allow to have cutting edges, along with lots of debris from percussion flaking.

Stone-Age Cutting Tool IV
Stone-Age Cutting Tool IV

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By about1.76 million years ago, early humans began shaping larger stones to create sharper objects for cutting purposes, like new kind of tools calledhandaxes. These utensils and other types of‘large cutting tools’characterize theAcheulean toolkit. These toolkits were made for an immense period,ending by around 400,000 to 250,000 years ago.

Stone age tools and art
A variety of Stone age tools and art

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Middle Stone Age Tools

大约400000至200000年前,石头shaping techniques began to increase. One of the main innovations was the application of the“准备的核心技术”, in which a core was particularly flaked on one side so that a flake, predetermined in size and shape, could be produced in a single cut.

Middle Paleolithic stone tools
Middle Paleolithic stone tools

Image source:https://search.creativecommons.org/photos/adb20f72-2cf0-4a8e-b61f-f973de238d23byGary Lee Todd, Ph.D.


Middle Stone Age toolkits includedspikes, which could be hafted on to shafts to make spears. They could be attached to smaller, sleeker shafts to create darts, arrows, and other weapons.Stone awlscould have been used to perforate hides and scrapers were useful in preparing hide. Moreover, wood and other materials were used in this period.

Later Stone Age Tools

During the Later Stone Age, the speed of innovations grew. In addition to stone, people experimented with different raw materials (bone, ivory and antler). The level of craftsmanship increased, andHomo Sapiens groupssearched for their own unique cultural identity and adopted their ways of creating objects. The toolkits of Later Stone Age were diverse and reflected the cultural diversity of the earlier times, such as for example,‘Upper Paleolithic’toolkits in Europe

and‘Late Stone Age’toolkits in Africa.

Prehistoric tools from Kissidougou, Guinée (West Africa)
Prehistoric tools from Kissidougou, Guinée (West Africa)

Scale in centimetres. Photo taken January 16, 1982 at the IFAN Museum, Dakar, Sénégal. Collected by J. Joffre.

Image source:https://search.creativecommons.org/photos/8e4e28df-1bec-4617-a826-64bc786237f8bygbaku


Info sources:
https://www.history.com/topics/pre-history/stone-age
https://www.britannica.com/event/Stone-Age/Europe#ref52343
https://humanorigins.si.edu/evidence/behavior/stone-tools
https://sciencing.com/list-neolithic-stone-tools-8252604.html